What do navigators use to manage the ship?
For the adequate and safe management of ships, a large number of navigational equipment is currently used. How it looks and where it is located on the navigating bridge - look in the video. How does it work, what is this, what is this for and why it is on the ship - this is the theme of a separate book but not of a short article. Here we will limit ourselves to listing the main equipment, in the order, as shown on the excursion.
General view of the navigation bridge.
- two GPS stations - determine the geographical coordinates of the location of the ship on the signal from the satellite;
- VHF stations - Very high frequency (VHF) radio stations; the range of radio waves from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of 10 to 1 meter. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted high frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as ultra high frequency (UHF).
- waterproof doors status panel - remote opening and closing of doors;
- sound signals;
- radar monitors;
- machine telegraph - controls the engine of the ship, thanks to which the ship is set in motion - forward-backward;
- repeater of gyrocompass - repeats indication of direction of the ship shown by gyrocompass;
- control of the ship's thruster (maneuvering device);
- magnetic compass - unlike a gyro compass, it determines the course by the Earth's magnetic field. The readings of the magnetic and gyrocompass differ from each other and the correction to the indications is needed;
- ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System) - Electronic-cartographic navigation information system, electronic maps. Used to lay the ship's course;
- AIS - Automatic identification system. Used by lighthouses, ships, airplanes, cars, etc. Thanks to the development of this system, Internet users can on specialized resources, such as marinetraffic.com, flightradar24.com and others so that to find the location of any AIS on a map, and accordingly location of means of transport themselves equipped with AIS;
- ship's telephone and broadcasting of the ship (ship's loud-speaker network);
- gyrocompass repeaters from the right and left sides of navigational bridge;
- sounder (depth sounder; echo sounder; sonar) - a device for determining the depth of the sea in the location of the ship;
- paper map, rulers and pencils;
- panel for the switching on/off of navigation lights;
- fire alarm signaling panel;
- activation of ventilation in holds;
- portable VHF stations for in case of disaster;
- схема Safety and Fire Plan;
- MF-HF station - MF-radio operating at frequencies between 150 and 160 MHz (wavelength 2 - 1.875 meters), and HF-radios use lower frequencies (1.6 to 30 MHz - wavelength 187.5-10 meters). These lower frequencies are the main factor allowing HF radio to communicate at much longer distances, as the radio wave goes around the earth's surface, reflecting off the ionosphere. Under good conditions for the passage of radio waves global radiocommunication is possible;
- two INMARSAT - satellite communication, which includes both ordinary telephone communication, as well as data transmission, as well as the transmission of distress signals;
- a button of typhon (giving a strong sound signal); an indicator of revolutions per minute of the ship's propeller (rpm - revolution per minute).
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